HOW ELSE COULD 9X18 BE USED?
How else could the area of a single parking space be used?
MINIMUM UNIT TYPES/SIZES VS PARKING SPACES
Current NYC Zoning regulations require that parking spaces be provided in each new development based on the number of units constructed. According to “Inner Ring, Residential Parking Study” conducted by the Department of City Planning, car ownership levels are directly related to household income level.
This study examines what happens if we create a more sophisticated parking formula.
PARKING V HOUSING
Parking space dimensions are easily adaptable to standard HPD/HDC affordable housing unit sizes.
ZONING: HOUSING MIX
In an effort to provide additional housing units to meet demand, each development would ideally be able to construct more units. Gross Square Footage remaining constant, this example provides more units by converting all 2BR apartments into studio apartments. Constructing additional, smaller units substantially impacts the parking requirements and as a result, the total cost of construction.
ZONING: LEVEL OF AFFORDABILITY
This example integrates the new mix of affordability into the development. Using a revised parking formula based on the level of affordability and the type of unit constructed rather than the total number of units, our new outcome illustrates how many parking spaces could be required under a more sophisticated regulatory system.
ZONING: NEW ZONING MATRIX
The “Inner Ring, Residential Parking Study” identifies the need to reduce parking requirements for developments located in close proximity to transit.
This new formula takes a more fine-grained approach to parking requirements in transit oriented communities by proposing that we further reduce parking requirements based on the distance from a subway stop and population density.
NYC INNER RING MAP
The Inner Ring Neighborhoods are based on a study released in December 2013 by the NYC Department of City Planning. These neighborhoods are characterized by access to transit, relatively low car ownership rates, medium to high housing density, and journey-to-work patterns that more closely resemble the patterns of Manhattan core residents. These neighborhoods represent potent sites for rethinking parking requirements in New York City.
WHY NYCHA SURFACE PARKING LOTS?
When considering parking on the scale of a neighborhood, there is potential for a reciprocal relationship between NYCHA-owned sites and their surroundings. Since these sites are public land, they pose a significant potential especially within the context of the whole city.
Each NYCHA cluster has a substantial amount of off-street surface parking. By rethinking the role of these spaces, we can provide opportunities by: constructing additional housing units, better integrating NYCHA campuses with the surrounding street grid, providing additional amenities to NYCHA as well as neighborhood residents and most importantly, providing choices of mobility.
SURFACE PARKING ANALYSIS IN THREE NYCHA CLUSTERS
Compared to typical New York City blocks, NYCHA sites have a high density of surface level parking. 74% of publicly subsidized buildings with five or more units providing off street parking create on grade surface parking. Only 44% of non-publicly subsidized buildings do so. (citation: NYC DCP Inner Ring Study, page 71)
NYCHA PARKING TYPOLOGIES
There are common typologies to the parking strategies deployed on NYCHA sites, shown in the diagrams at right. However, the parking and building relationships are not paired in any way. More often than not, the surface parking areas serve as a physical barrier between the NYCHA campuses and their surrounding communities.
In many cases, a single NYCHA superblock site has several disparate lots, meaning that development has the potential to impact not only residents of an affordable development, but also an entire neighborhood. Interventions can provide opportunities to better integrate NYCHA sites into the surrounding urban context.
THE 9X18 PLAN WITHIN A NEIGHBORHOOD
Focusing on the city-wide issue of parking could help shift affordable housing debates away from individual projects and toward a conversation about neighborhoods, lifestyle choices, mobility, and social justice.
9x18 proposes a new system of banked structured parking that consolidates existing surface lots with the parking required for new developments.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The proposed system allows new high density residential developments to bank parking into one convenient site for the residents of a neighborhood while still being in close proximity to their development site.
For existing surface parking sites, it is a system of relocating parking areas for residents in order to provide new and exciting opportunities within a community.
STRUCTURED PARKING GUIDELINES
New parking hubs called PiYNs (“Park in Your Neighborhood) would serve as anchors within a community. Parking structures would be designed according to guidelines that integrate them with the surrounding fabric, provide for multiple uses, and assure they can be easily converted to alternate future building types like more affordable housing as attitudes about car ownership shift.
EAST HARLEM: A CASE STUDY
According to the Inner Ring Study conducted by the Department of City Planning, 84% of households in East Harlem don’t own a car, yet there are 613,593sf of surface level parking on NYCHA sites in the neighborhood.
Given Mayor DeBlasio’s agenda for the creation of more affordable housing with a higher mix of affordability, this is a prime site to examine the spatial and economic potential of the PiYN Program and the resulting opportunities for new development on NYCHA parking sites.
EAST HARLEM : NEW PARKING STRUCTURE LOCATIONS
As an alternative to the abundance of surface level parking lots, we propose banking parking from existing NYCHA surface parking sites into new, multi-level municipal structures called PiyNs (“Park in Your Neighborhood”). These PiYNs would be strategically located on existing surface lots, not further than 1/4 mile from any dwelling.
We propose eight potential locations for PiYNs on existing surface lots in East Harlem. The PiyNs would serve eight NYCHA subclusters, thus consolidating the existing 65 surface lots. This strategy could free up the remaining 544,154sf of existing surface lots for potential development.
EAST HARLEM : NEIGHBORHOOD PROGRAMMING
9 x 18 would embrace residents, who would collaborate on where and how these public housing campuses might be changed and improved.
THROUGH BLOCK INFILL
Infill development on surface parking lots along with the new structured parking could be an opportunity to strategically re-introduce the street grid across NYCHA superblocks.
AERIAL OF EAST HARLEM INFILLED
Infill Development could take place at the neighborhood scale, generating revenue for repairing NYCHA buildings and integrating campuses into the surrounding urban fabric.